If there was ever a time to think seriously about failure, it is now.

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June 12, 2017 – Online MCAT CARS Practice

Question: What is your summary of the author’s main ideas. Post your own answer in the comments before reading those made by others.

If there was ever a time to think seriously about failure, it is now.

We are firmly in an era of accelerated progress. We are witness to advancements in science, the arts, technology, medicine and nearly all forms of human achievement at a rate never seen before. We know more about the workings of the human brain and of distant galaxies than our ancestors could imagine. The design of a superior kind of human being – healthier, stronger, smarter, more handsome, more enduring – seems to be in the works. Even immortality may now appear feasible, a possible outcome of better and better biological engineering.

Certainly the promise of continual human progress and improvement is alluring. But there is a danger there, too — that in this more perfect future, failure will become obsolete.

Why should we care? And more specifically, why should philosophy care about failure? Doesn’t it have better things to do? The answer is simple: Philosophy is in the best position to address failure because it knows it intimately. The history of Western philosophy at least is nothing but a long succession of failures, if productive and fascinating ones. Any major philosopher typically asserts herself by addressing the “failures,” “errors,” “fallacies” or “naiveties” of other philosophers, only to be, in turn, dismissed by others as yet another failure. Every new philosophical generation takes it as its duty to point out the failures of the previous one; it is as though, no matter what it does, philosophy is doomed to fail. Yet from failure to failure, it has thrived over the centuries. As Emmanuel Levinas memorably put it (in an interview with Richard Kearney), “the best thing about philosophy is that it fails.” Failure, it seems, is what philosophy feeds on, what keeps it alive. As it were, philosophy succeeds only in so far as it fails.

So, allow me to make a case for the importance of failure.

Failure is significant for several reasons. I’d like to discuss three of them.

Failure allows us to see our existence in its naked condition.

Whenever it occurs, failure reveals just how close our existence is to its opposite. Out of our survival instinct, or plain sightlessness, we tend to see the world as a solid, reliable, even indestructible place. And we find it extremely difficult to conceive of that world existing without us. “It is entirely impossible for a thinking being to think of its own non-existence, of the termination of its thinking and life,” observed Goethe. Self-deceived as we are, we forget how close to not being we always are. The failure of, say, a plane engine could be more than enough to put an end to everything; even a falling rock or a car’s faulty brakes can do the job. And while it may not be always fatal, failure always carries with it a certain degree of existential threat.

Failure is the sudden irruption of nothingness into the midst of existence. To experience failure is to start seeing the cracks in the fabric of being, and that’s precisely the moment when, properly digested, failure turns out to be a blessing in disguise. For it is this lurking, constant threat that should make us aware of the extraordinariness of our being: the miracle that we exist at all when there is no reason that we should. Knowing that gives us some dignity.

In this role, failure also possesses a distinct therapeutic function. Most of us (the most self-aware or enlightened excepted) suffer chronically from a poor adjustment to existence; we compulsively fancy ourselves much more important than we are and behave as though the world exists only for our sake; in our worst moments, we place ourselves like infants at the center of everything and expect the rest of the universe to be always at our service. We insatiably devour other species, denude the planet of life and fill it with trash. Failure could be a medicine against such arrogance and hubris, as it often brings humility.

Our capacity to fail is essential to what we are.

We need to preserve, cultivate, even treasure this capacity. It is crucial that we remain fundamentally imperfect, incomplete, erring creatures; in other words, that there is always a gap left between what we are and what we can be. Whatever human accomplishments there have been in history, they have been possible precisely because of this empty space. It is within this interval that people, individuals as well as communities, can accomplish anything. Not that we’ve turned suddenly into something better; we remain the same weak, faulty material. But the spectacle of our shortcomings can be so unbearable that sometimes it shames us into doing a little good. Ironically, it is the struggle with our own failings that may bring the best in us.

The gap between what we are and what we can be is also the space in which utopias are conceived. Utopian literature, at its best, may document in detail our struggle with personal and societal failure. While often constructed in worlds of excess and plenitude, utopias are a reaction to the deficits and precariousness of existence; they are the best expression of what we lack most. Thomas More’s book is not so much about some imaginary island, but about the England of his time. Utopias may look like celebrations of human perfection, but read in reverse they are just spectacular admissions of failure, imperfection and embarrassment.

And yet it is crucial that we keep dreaming and weaving utopias. If it weren’t for some dreamers, we would live in a much uglier world today. But above all, without dreams and utopias we would dry out as a species. Suppose one day science solves all our problems: We will be perfectly healthy, live indefinitely, and our brains, thanks to some enhancement, will work like a computer. On that day we may be something very interesting, but I am not sure we will have what to live for. We will be virtually perfect and essentially dead.

Ultimately, our capacity to fail makes us what we are; our being as essentially failing creatures lies at the root of any aspiration. Failure, fear of it and learning how to avoid it in the future are all part of a process through which the shape and destiny of humanity are decided. That’s why, as I hinted earlier, the capacity to fail is something that we should absolutely preserve, no matter what the professional optimists say. Such a thing is worth treasuring, even more so than artistic masterpieces, monuments or other accomplishments. For, in a sense, the capacity to fail is much more important than any individual human achievements: It is that which makes them possible.

We are designed to fail.

No matter how successful our lives turn out to be, how smart, industrious or diligent we are, the same end awaits us all: “biological failure.” The “existential threat” of that failure has been with us all along, though in order to survive in a state of relative contentment, most of us have pretended not to see it. Our pretense, however, has never stopped us from moving toward our destination; faster and faster, “in inverse ratio to the square of the distance from death,” as Tolstoy’s Ivan Ilyich expertly describes the process. Yet Tolstoy’s character is not of much help here. The more essential question is rather how to approach the grand failure, how to face it and embrace it and own it — something poor Ivan fails to do.

A better model may be Ingmar Bergman’s Antonius Block, from the film “The Seventh Seal.” A knight returning from the Crusades and plunged into crisis of faith, Block is faced with the grand failure in the form of a man. He does not hesitate to engage Death head-on. He doesn’t flee, doesn’t beg for mercy — he just challenges him to a game of chess. Needless to say, he cannot succeed in such a game — no one can — but victory is not the point. You play against the grand, final failure not to win, but to learn how to fail.

Bergman the philosopher teaches us a great lesson here. We will all end in failure, but that’s not the most important thing. What really matters is how we fail and what we gain in the process. During the brief time of his game with Death, Antonius Block must have experienced more than he did all his life; without that game he would have lived for nothing. In the end, of course, he loses, but accomplishes something rare. He not only turns failure into an art, but manages to make the art of failing an intimate part of the art of living.

Adapted from Nytimes.


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Jack Westin
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  1. Failure is an important part of being human. It discovers who were are, our aspirations, and proves to be a good lesson to us. Quote support on how philosophers are great because they do acknowledge failure and bring about the positives of it rather than the negatives.


  2. failure important, learn from failure


  3. Failure essential to human progress need it to live and evolve


  4. Failure is an inherent part of humans’ existence; writing in response to rapid advancements society is currently making.


  5. An interesting passage on why failure is prominent, and should be preserved in an ever growing perfectionist society. The passage explains 3 reasons why failure is critical: it is an existential threat, it brings realizations to others, and it provides humility.
    Because of failure, people have aspired to do great things. Utopias are a result of failure, when others learn about failure and the gap of who we are and who we should be.
    In the end, the author uses and example of a character that played a game of chesd with Death and obviously lost, but the important part is what the character learned from that failure. In addition, this id all tied to philosophy and how philosophy is composed of nothing but failure.


  6. MI: Failure is essential to the human spirit and pleasure of life. Author tone: Not discouraged despite current trend towards perfect world. Finds it crucial audience understands failure’s importance.


  7. Theme: Author is an proponent of failure and he hopes readers will learn to better appreciate failure than always finding ways to avert it. (central)

    With continued and unprecedented human progress, the author worries that failure will one day become obsolete.
    Philosophy and failure have been intrinsically linked (knows it intimately) and it has a long history of failures since its inception (each new generation ..point out the failures of the previous…doomed to fail….yet from failure to failure, it has thrived over the centuries)

    Know that failure allows us to see ourselves for what we are so that we no longer have any preconceived notions or misconceptions of what we truly are and that our existence can be eradicated anytime failure chooses to take place (plane or car crash). The world is not as reliable as it is thanks to failures so failures carry an existential threat to our survival.

    Being able to survive a failure makes us more aware of our extraordinariness and makes us proud of who we are (gives us some dignity). Failure makes us stronger.

    Failure also makes us more humble and as we realize that we cannot always be treated as kings and expect to thrive at the expense of others (devour other species, denude the planet)

    Being able to fail is one of our fundamental capabilities, so as being able to improve on ourselves to overcome failure. We are still weak and susceptible to failures but failures shame us into doing more good. We can truly live for something because of dreams and utopias that are manifestations of our failings.

    We should preserve the capacity to fail because without it, we will not be able to achieve greatness.
    We are doomed to fail biologically since death is an existential threat that we cannot escape and it is the surest form of failure. Author suggests that the better approach to death is to engage it whole-heartedly/ embrace it. Since we cannot escape from death, there is no point in overcoming it (victory), we just need to embrace it (learn how to fail). He agrees with Bergman that we need to learn how to fail and what we gain from the process is the most important. Death (failure) teaches us many things and in learning to fail, we also learn to live (association, analogy).


  8. Failure = important for our development, we should learn from failure.


  9. Failure is an important part of being human, it helps us grow, evolve. Our current progress and drive for perfection could deprive us of failure, haltering our growth, thus author makes case that failure must be preserved.


  10. MIP: Philosophy is a good foundation to think about failure because it has perpetuated itself based on failure. Thinking about failure is important because it opens our eyes to the reality of our existence


  11. Failure = part of philosophy and human being , essential because it gives us life and something to strive for


  12. Author argues as we move towards the future, failure will become obsolete as perfectionism is reached. Ironic as philosophy states we are intended to fail; but when we fail it marks how far we are from perfection which is a good tool.


  13. Failure is necessary for our evolution. We need failure to aware our existence. And, we are designed to fail.


  14. MIP:
    (1) Failure = important –> brings about success
    (2) All humans = biological failure

    Positive towards failure; thinks it is essential.


  15. philosophy=success based on failure
    reasons=see existence+essential+design to fail.


  16. Failure is indispensable to our evolution as humans because it constantly pushes us to be a better version of ourselves.


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